Nuclear fission involves the divides the atoms to release the binding energy of the atomic nuclei. This energy is released as heat and radiation, with the heat used by a nuclear power plant to hot water into steam to turn a turbine and drive generators to produce electricity.
Neutrons are then fired at the uranium atoms, causing them to split and release more neutrons that attack other atoms, creating a chain reaction that splits more atoms, releasing energy as heat and radiation. For example, uranium-235 atoms divided into nuclei of krypton.
Nuclear fusion is that the method of mixing atomic nuclei instead of rending them (as with fission) to supply energy. This method happens naturally within the centre of stars just like the Sun and creates no long radioactive material or greenhouse gases.
Fusion power plants operate in a very similar manner to fission plants, exploitation the warmth generated by the atomic reaction to heat water, manufacture steam, drive turbines and generate electricity, however it’s been a challenge to form the desired conditions in a very reactor while not intense additional energy than is created.
While still being developed, a reactor (known as a tokamak) uses a gas – typically a H atom which will be extracted from water known as heavy hydrogen. once subjected to high heat and pressure electrons square measure forced faraway from the heavy hydrogen atoms to form a plasma. This plasma may be a superheated, ionized gas that must be contained by sturdy magnetic fields because it will reach temperatures of 100,000,000°C or additional. These temperatures square measure 10 times that found at the core of the Sun, however square measure required for the method because it is not possible to form the attraction pressure inside the Sun instead.
Key points of nuclear fission and fusion:
Fission releases energy once atoms ar split, whereas fusion releases energy once atoms ar joined.
The fusion reaction releases a lot of energy than fission.
Fusion will not manufacture harmful long-run radioactive material as a by-product like fission does.
Fusion wants a lot of energy to accomplish than fission will. The energy needed for fusion has been a barrier to its widespread use for energy generation.